Apartheid Natives Abolition Of Passes Act 67 Of 1952

The intentions of many 'native' laws as recorded in government gazettes and published in the media seldom indicated how harshly they would affect the lives of the people who it was aimed at.

With The introduction of the Pass Law the act was further expanded to provide government with complete control over the movement of black Africans. African men and women that did not qualify to work in white urban areas had to carry a "pass" that was valid for 72 hours. If a black African were caught with an expired pass, they would be arrested and had to pay a fine to be released, If these individuals had no money to pay the fine (which was often the case) they would be jailed for a few months. Little regard was given to how the family structure was destroyed or how it would criminalize a large section of the black population.

The pass law was abolished In 1952, only to be replaced by a 96-page document, named a reference book. The identification book had a fingerprint of the holder. The book had to be carried at all times, from Doctors to academics and laborers. Failure to produce the document on demand to a policeman was a punishable offence. Black Africans had no right to appeal to courts if they were removed from an urban area. Police and authorities had the right to raid any dwelling inhabited by blacks in search of "illegal" black residents.

At the height of the law few Africans could claim that they have not appeared before the Bantu Commissioners court to answer to charges of being in an urban area without a reference book, or producing one on demand.

In 1956 the apartheid government removed the right of Africans to appeal to the courts against removal from an urban area. To 'maintain peace and order'. Two years later, police and local authorities were empowered to raid, without search warrant, any dwelling in search of illegal African residents.

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