The pass law was abolished In 1952, only to be replaced by a 96-page
document, named a reference book.
identification book had a fingerprint of the holder. The book had to be
carried at all times, from Doctors to academics and laborers. Failure to
produce the document on demand to a policeman was a punishable offence.
Black Africans had no right to appeal to courts if they were removed
from an urban area. Police and authorities had the right to raid any
dwelling inhabited by blacks in search of "illegal" black residents.
At the height of
the law few Africans could claim that they have not appeared before the
Bantu Commissioners court to answer to charges of being in an urban area
without a reference book, or producing one on demand.
In 1956 the
apartheid government removed the right of Africans to appeal to the
courts against removal from an urban area. To 'maintain peace and
order'. Two years later, police and local authorities were empowered to
raid, without search warrant, any dwelling in search of illegal African